Dec 12 at the International Conference on global Warming (COP21) in Paris, 195 nations have reached for the first time in history a landmark agreement on global warming. The accord that will allow nations to reduce warming to 2 degrees Celsius or 1.5 degrees Celsius (Referring to the pre-industrial revolution era) was adopted by all 195 countries which attended the COP 21. This international conference was held in Paris, from November 30 to December 12, and during 15days and nights, delegations from all countries focused their discussions on one major objective:  holding global warming “well below 2 ° C.” Besides they call for “continued efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °”, relative to the pre-industrial era.

This agreement provides funding for developing countries, a regular review of country commitments to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, but NGOs deplore the lack of clarity on how to achieve the goal of 2 or 1, 5 degrees.

The treaty “recognizes the concept of climate justice and reflects the differentiated responsibilities of countries,” said Laurent Fabius, the French president of the COP and French diplomacy. In other words, countries have to share responsibility for global warming in both the efforts required to reduce pollution and in helping poor countries adapt to climate change. This will require resources. The $ 100 billion per year the North promised the South for their climate policies “should be a floor for post-2020,” effective date of the agreement expected in Paris, said Laurent Fabius. And “a new target figure will be set later in 2025,” he said. For Francois Hollande, “the world has written a new page in its history.”

From the White house, Obama who attended the opening ceremony of COP 21, praised a “strong” agreement that may mark a “turning point” in the fight against climate change. “The problem is not solved by the Paris agreement, but it establishes sustainable framework that the world needs to solve the climate crisis,” said the US President. As for John Kerry, “This is a victory for the entire planet and the future generations.”

Each signatory country must communicate every five years a GHG reduction plan, taking into account a global assessment of the results of efforts made. The first global assessment will take place in 2023.

The First World Climate Conference was held 1979 in Geneva (Switzerland). The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1992 was a crucial step in international climate negotiations with the signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It formally recognized the existence of climate change and human responsibility in this phenomenon.

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