WATU MILIONI 38 HUISHI NA VIRUSI VYA UKIMWI KOTE DUNIANI / 38,000,000 People with HIV Worldwide

Imechapishwa na Karibu News na
kutafsiriwa na Walter Ndjibu

Disemba 1 ni Siku ya UKIMWI duniani. Serikali na mashirika husika kote duniani wamepitisha siku hiyo katika tafakari ya kina. Kote duniani wapo watu takriban 38 milioni wanaoishi na virusi vya UKIMWI wakiwemo vijana milioni 2.5. Takwimu zimebaini kwamba kila mwaka asilimia 63 ya hao walioambukizwa na virusi vya UKIMWI hupatikana katika jumuiya ya wasenge na wanaopenda jinsi zote mbili kimapenzi. Nchini Marekani watu 50,000 huambukizwa virusi vya UKIMWI kila mwaka na kwamba toka mwaka 2000 watu milioni 25.2 wamefariki dunia kwa maradhi yatokanayo na UKIMWI.

Kwa mujibu wa serikali na taasisi za kitaaluma duniani, nchi a Afrika ya kusini mwa Afrika zimekuwa na watu 25.8 wanaoishi na virusi vya UKIMWI, zikifwatiwa na Asia na Pasifiki, milioni 5; Ulaya ya magharibi na ya kati na Marekani ya kaskazini, milioni 2.4; Amerika ya kusini, milioni 1.7; Ulaya ya mashariki na Asia ya kati, milioni 1.5; eneo la Mashariki ya KATI na Afrika ya kaskazini, elfu 280 na nchi za Karaibu, elfu 240.

HIV ama kirusi kinachodhoofisha na kuondosha kinga ya mwili ni mdudu mwenye uwezo wa kuambukiza mwali wa mwanadamu tu kwa kukabili kinga ya mwili na kuidhoofisha hadi isiweze kupambana na maradhi kama inavyotakiwa. Tofauti na inavyokuwa kwa magonjwa mengine, mfumo wa kinga ya mwili ya mwanadamu haujaweza kupambana na kirusi cha UKIMWI na kukitokomeza na hakuna hadi hivi anayeelewa kwa nini kinga za mwanadamu hazijaweza kukitokomeza kirusi cha UKIMWI licha ya kwamba yapo madawa yanayoweza kukidhibiti vya kutosheleza.

Wakati HIV ni kirusi kinachosababisha uambukizwaji, AIDS ama UKIMWI ni hali aliyemo mtu aliyeambukizwa na kirusi kinachoondoa kinga ya mwili. Unapopata ama kuambukizwa kirusi kichaoondoa kinga ya mwili ndipo unapokuwa na UKIMWI. UKIMWI hujidhihirisha pale tu virusi vinakuwa vimeathiri sana kinga ya mwili. Wataalamu kutoka kote duniani wamekiri kwamba hali ya UKIMWI ni ya kutatanisha sana maana dalili zake huwa tofauti kutokana na mtu na mtu.

Dalili za UKIMWI hutokana na kiwango cha uwambukizaji wa ugonjwa ambapo kinga ya mwili hushindwa kupambana na virusi kama inavyokuwa kawaida wakati mtu anapokuwa katika afya njema. Virusi vya UKIMWI husababisha baadhi ya mwagonjwa mbalimbali yakiwemo nmonia, kifwa kikuu, na aina mbalimbali ya sarakani. Ni vyema kutombambua kuwa unaweza kuwa na virusi vinavyoondoa kinga ya mwili bila kuwa na UKIMWI. Watu wengi wenye virusi vinavyodhoofisha na kuondoa kinga y amwili huishi miaka bila UKIMWI kujitokeza. Sasa hivi, maendeleao ya kitiba yawawezesha watu wengi wenye virusi vya UKIMWI kuishi miaka mingi kuliko siku za nyuma.

Wataalamu wametahadharisha kuwa hata pale unapowezakuwa na virusi bila kuwa na UKIMWI, yeyote anayepimwa na kukutwa na UKIMWI ina maana tayari ana kirusi. Kwa vile tiba bado haipo, kirusi kinachoondoa kinga y a mwili hakiwezi kutoweka mwilinini hata kama UKIMWI hautojitokeza kamwe. Kirusi kinachoondoa kinga y amwili hakionyeshi dalili mara moja lakini husababisha kupanda na kushuka kwa joto la mwili na madhaifu ya hapa na pale katika wiki mbili au tatu baada ya maambukizo. Kinga za mwili wetu haziwezi kutokomeza kwa jumla virusi vya UKIMWI bali zinaweza kuvithibiti kwa muda mrefu.

Imeshauriwa kwamba ngono bila kinga, ugiligili wa mwili, sindano zilizoambukizwa na upaji wa damu ni njia mojawapo zinazoweza kusababisha uambukizaji wa virusi vya UKIMWI. Mama mjamzto anaweza pia kumuambukiza mwanaye virusi kupitia mimba. Lakini taarifa za hivi karibuni kutoka UNICEF zimesema kwamba maendeleo ya kiutafiti yanawawezesha siku hizi wataalamu kuzuia asilimia 73 ya kinamama wajawazito kuwaambukiza wanao virusi vya UKIMWI.


Dec. 1 is the World Aids Day. Governments and agencies across the globe have observed the day under deep reflection. Around the world, there are nearly 38 million people living with HIV, while 2.6 million of them are youth. Statistics’ reveal that gay and bisexual men account for 63% of new HIV cases annually. In United States, about 50,000 get infected every year. Since 2000 25.2 million people have died of AIDS related illness.

According to governmental and specialized agencies, Sub-Saharan Africa leads on the chart of HIV carriers with 25,800,000 people with HIV; Asia and the Pacific, 5,000,000; Western and Central Europe and North America 2,400,000; Latin America, 1,700,000; Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 1,500,000; Middle East and North Africa 280,000 and the Caribbean, 240,000.

HIV (Human immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that infects only humans only by attacking the immune system and rending it deficient and unable to work as effectively as it should. Contrary to other viruses, our immune systems are unable to attack and completely clear out HIV, no one understands why our system cannot defeat HIV, although medications can control it very successfully.

While HIV is a virus that can cause infection, AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is a condition or a syndrome. Being infected by HIV can lead to AIDS. AIDS develops when HIV has caused serious damage to the immune system. Many world’s experts recognize the fact that AIDS condition is a very complex one with symptoms that vary by individual.

Symptoms of AIDS are related to the infection a person develops as a result of having a damaged immune system unable to fight infection as it would be in healthy individual. HIV infection can lead to diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, certain types of cancer and various other diseases. You can have HIV without developing AIDS. Many people with HIV live for years without developing AIDS. Thanks to advances in treatment, people can live longer than ever before with HIV infection.

Experts caution that while you can have infection without having AIDS, anyone diagnosed with AIDS already necessarily has HIV. Because there is no cure, the HIV infection never goes away even if AIDS never develops. HIV does not produce symptoms right away, but it usually causes flu-like symptoms about two or three weeks after infection. Our immune system cannot completely eliminate HIV, but it can control it for a long time.

Unprotected sex, exchange of bodily fluids, contaminated needles and less commonly and tainted blood transfusion are means through which HIV can be transmitted. A HIV infected mother can pass the virus to her child during pregnancy. But according to the current reports from UNICEF and other specialized agencies, advances in treatment have enables specialists to prevent 73% of infected mothers from infecting their babies during pregnancy.

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